Lower limb deformities may develop while a fetus is still in the uterus or during early childhood. These conditions affect the feet, ankles, and/or legs and vary in severity from being primarily aesthetic to affecting mobility. Deformities typically occur as a result of genetics, a fetus’ position in the womb, or vitamin/nutrition deficiencies but they can also be caused by several other factors.
Calcaneovalgus foot is a flexible flat foot deformity that causes the foot to bend upwards towards the front of the leg.
Club foot (congenital talipes equinovarus) is a congenital foot abnormality where a child’s foot twists at the ankle, turning the foot inward.
Congenital vertical talus is a fixed flat foot deformity that causes the sole of a child’s foot to appear to have a convex curve or rocker-bottom appearance.
Flat foot also known as fallen arches and pes planus is a condition where the arch of a foot either does not develop or collapses.
High arch or cavus foot is a condition where a foot’s arch is raised more than normal. The high arch causes pain and instability as a result of excessive weight falling on the ball and heel of the foot when walking or standing.
Metatarsus adductus is a foot deformity where the metatarsals shift inwards and cause the forefoot to bend towards the body resulting in a bean shape.
A tarsal coalition is a developmental condition where two or more of a foot’s tarsal bones fuse together.
Bowed legs describes a condition where an outward curve of one or both legs results in a noticeable space between the legs at the knees.
Leg length discrepancy describes the presence of legs that vary in length. This is a common deformity that has no affect on the function of the legs in very mild cases. However, larger variations can affect mobility and cause other issues.